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The following was retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :  ( Paleontology ) on March 22, 2020.

"Paleontology, sometimes spelled palaeontology or palæontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/), is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to classify organisms and study interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BCE. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen. ontos), "being, creature" and λόγος, logos, "speech, thought, study".

Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of anatomically modern humans. It now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry, mathematics, and engineering. Use of all these techniques has enabled paleontologists to discover much of the evolutionary history of life, almost all the way back to when Earth became capable of supporting life, about 3.8 billion years ago. As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised sub-divisions, some of which focus on different types of fossil organisms while others study ecology and environmental history, such as ancient climates.

Body fossils and trace fossils are the principal types of evidence about ancient life, and geochemical evidence has helped to decipher the evolution of life before there were organisms large enough to leave body fossils. Estimating the dates of these remains is essential but difficult: sometimes adjacent rock layers allow radiometric dating, which provides absolute dates that are accurate to within 0.5%, but more often paleontologists have to rely on relative dating by solving the "jigsaw puzzles" of biostratigraphy (arrangement of rock layers from youngest to oldest). Classifying ancient organisms is also difficult, as many do not fit well into the Linnaean taxonomy classifying living organisms, and paleontologists more often use cladistics to draw up evolutionary "family trees". The final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics, which investigates how closely organisms are related by measuring the similarity of the DNA in their genomes. Molecular phylogenetics has also been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend."

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  Common Minerals

»  Alunite
»  Amphibole
»  Anorthoclase
»  Apatite
»  Azurite
»  Barite
»  Beryl
»  Biotite
»  Bauxite

»  Borax
»  Calcite
»  Carnotite
»  Chalcopyrite
»  Chromite
»  Chrysocolla
»  Cinnabar
»  Corundum
»  Cryolite

»  Cuprite
»  Diamond
»  Dioptase
»  Dolomite
»  Epidote
»  Euclase
»  Feldspar
»  Fluorite
»  Galena

»  Garnet
»  Graphite
»  Gypsum
»  Halite
»  Hematite
»  Hornblende
»  Hydroxylapatite
»  Jadeite
»  Labradorite

»  Leaverite
»  Lepidolite
»  Magnetite
»  Malachite
»  Marcasite
»  Mica
»  Microcline
»  Molybdenite
»  Muscovite

»  Natron
»  Oligoclase
»  Olivine
»  Oregonite
»  Orthoclase
»  Plagioclase
»  Pyrite
»  Quartz
»  Realgar

»  Scheelite
»  Selenite
»  Siderite
»  Simonellite
»  Sphalerite
»  Spinel
»  Stibnite
»  Talc
»  Tanzanite

»  Tellurite
»  Topaz
»  Tourmaline
»  Turquoise
»  Uraninite
»  Wulfenite
»  Zeolite
»  Zircon

  Common Rocks

Igneous :

»  Andesite
»  Basalt
»  Dacite
»  Diorite
»  Gabbro
»  Granite

»  Obsidian
»  Pegmatite
»  Porphyry
»  Pumice
»  Rhyolite
»  Scoria

Sedimentary :

»  Banded iron fm.
»  Breccia
»  Chalk
»  Claystone
»  Coal

»  Conglomerate
»  Coquina
»  Diatomite
»  Evaporite
»  Flint

»  Limestone
»  Marl
»  Mudstone
»  Oil shale
»  Oolite

»  Sandstone
»  Shale
»  Siltstone
»  Travertine
»  Wackestone

Metamorphic :

»  Anthracite
»  Amphibolite
»  Gneiss
»  Marble

»  Quartzite
»  Schist
»  Serpentine
»  Slate

  The Elements

Actinium  89
Aluminum  13
Americium  95
Antimony  51
Argon  18
Arsenic  33
Astatine  85
Barium  56
Berkelium  97
Beryllium  4
Bismuth  83
Bohrium  107
Boron  5
Bromine  35
Cadmium  48

Calcium  20
Californium  98
Carbon  6
Cerium  58
Cesium  55
Chlorine  17
Chromium  24
Cobalt  27
Copernicium  112
Copper  29
Curium  96
Darmstadtium  110
Dubnium  105
Dysprosium  66
Einsteinium  99

Erbium  68
Europium  63
Fermium  100
Flerovium  114
Fluorine  9
Francium  87
Gadolinium  64
Gallium  31
Germanium  32
Gold  79
Hafnium  72
Hassium  108
Helium  2
Holmium  67
Hydrogen  1

Indium  49
Iodine  53
Iridium  77
Iron  26
Krypton  36
Lanthanum  57
Lawrencium  103
Lead  82
Lithium  3
Livermorium  116
Lutetium  71
Magnesium  12
Manganese  25
Meitnerium  109
Mendelevium  101

Mercury  80
Molybdenum  42
Moscovium  115
Neodymium  60
Neon  10
Neptunium  93
Nickel  28
Nihonium  113
Niobium  41
Nitrogen  7
Nobelium  102
Oganesson  118
Osmium  76
Oxygen  8
Palladium  46

Phosphorus  15
Platinum  78
Plutonium  94
Polonium  84
Potassium  19
Praseodymium  59
Promethium  61
Protactinium  91
Radium  88
Radon  86
Rhenium  75
Rhodium  45
Roentgenium  111
Rubidium  37
Ruthenium  44

Rutherfordium  104
Samarium  62
Scandium  21
Seaborgium  106
Selenium  34
Silicon  14
Silver  47
Sodium  11
Strontium  38
Sulfur  16
Tantalum  73
Technetium  43
Tellurium  52
Tennessine  117
Terbium  65

Thallium  81
Thorium  90
Thulium  69
Tin  50
Titanium  22
Tungsten  74
Uranium  92
Vanadium  23
Xenon  54
Ytterbium  70
Yttrium  39
Zinc  30
Zirconium  40

There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. Many of these sets are formally recognized by the standards body IUPAC.

The following collective names are recommended by IUPAC:

Alkali metals – The metals of group 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metals – The metals of group 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Pnictogens – The elements of group 15: N, P, As, Sb, Bi. (Mc had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Chalcogens – The elements of group 16: O, S, Se, Te, Po. (Lv had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Halogens – The elements of group 17: F, Cl, Br, I, At. (Ts had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Noble gases – The elements of group 18: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. (Og had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Lanthanoids – Elements 57–71: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu,

Actinoids – Elements 89–103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr.

Rare-earth metalsSc Y, plus the lanthanoids

Transition elements – Elements in groups 3 to 11 or 3 to 12.

  Greek Alphabet

Α α


Β β


Γ γ








Δ δ


Ε ε


Ζ ζ








Η η


Θ θ


Ι ι








Κ κ


Λ λ


Μ μ










Ξ ξ


Ο ο








Π π


Ρ ρ


Σ σ/ς








Τ τ


Υ υ


Φ φ








Χ χ


Ψ ψ


Ω ω





(as in lapse)



     "Study hard what interests you the most in the most undisciplined, irreverent and original manner possible."  .....  Richard Feynman          

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