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    The mineral Barite

Definitions     A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  

The following was retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :  ( ) on February 22, 2020.

"Barite or baryte (UK), is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate (BaSO4). Barite is generally white or colorless, and is the main source of barium. The barite group consists of barite, celestine (strontium sulfate), anglesite (lead sulfate), and anhydrite (calcium sulfate). Barite and celestine form a solid solution (Ba,Sr)SO4."

Names and history

The radiating form, sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone, attained some notoriety among alchemists for the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo Casciarolo.

The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500, which governs barite for drilling purposes, does not refer to any specific mineral, but rather a material that meets that specification. In practice, however, this is usually the mineral barite.

The term "primary barites" refers to the first marketable product, which includes crude barite (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods, such as washing, jigging, heavy media separation, tabling, flotation. Most crude barite requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. Barite that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. Most barite is ground to a small, uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender, an addition to industrial products, in the production of barium chemicals or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud.


The name barite is derived from the Ancient Greek: βαρύς, romanized: barús, 'heavy'. The British spelling is baryte. The International Mineralogical Association initially adopted "barite" as the official spelling, but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling later. This move was controversial and was notably ignored by American mineralogists.

Other names have been used for barite, including barytine, barytite, barytes, heavy spar, tiff, and blanc fixe.

Mineral associations and locations

Barite occurs in a large number of depositional environments, and is deposited through a large number of processes including biogenic, hydrothermal, and evaporation, among others. Barite commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones, in hot spring deposits, and with hematite ore. It is often associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. It has also been identified in meteorites.

Barite has been found at locations in Brazil, Nigeria, Canada, Chile, China, India, Pakistan, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Iran, Ireland (where it was mined on Benbulben), Liberia, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, Romania (Baia Sprie), Turkey, South Africa (Barberton Mountain Land), Thailand, United Kingdom (Cornwall, Cumbria, Dartmoor/Devon, Derbyshire, Durham, Perthshire, Argyllshire, and Surrey) and in the US from Cheshire, Connecticut, De Kalb, New York, and Fort Wallace, New Mexico. It is mined in Arkansas, Connecticut, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Nevada, and Missouri.

World barite production for 2017 was 8.65 million tonnes. The major barites producers (in thousand tonnes, data for 2017) are as follows: China (3,600), India (1,600), Morocco (1,000), Mexico (400), United States (330), Iran (280), Turkey (250), Russia (210), Kazakhstan (160), Thailand (130) and Laos (120).

The main users of barites in 2017 were (in million tonnes) US (2.35), China (1.60), Middle East (1.55), the European Union and Norway (0.60), Russia and CIS (0.5), South America (0.35), Africa (0.25), and Canada (0.20). 70% of barites was destined for oil and gas well drilling muds. 15% for barium chemicals, 14% for filler applications in automotive, construction, and paint industries, and 1% other applications.


In oil and gas drilling

Worldwide, 69–77% of barite is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. As a well is drilled, the bit passes through various formations, each with different characteristics. The deeper the hole, the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole, either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black, blue, brown or gray depending on the ore body. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material, by weight, can pass through a 200-mesh (75 μm) screen, and no more than 30%, by weight, can be less than 6 μm diameter. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4.2 or greater, soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit, chemically inert, and containing no more than 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. In August 2010, the American Petroleum Institute published specifications to modify the 4.2 drilling grade standards for barite to include 4.1 SG materials.

In oxygen and sulfur isotopic analysis

In the deep ocean, away from continental sources of sediment, pelagic barite precipitates and forms a significant amount of the sediments. Since barite has oxygen, systematics in the δ18O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust.

The variations in sulfur isotopes (34S/32S) are being examined in evaporite minerals containing sulfur (e.g. barite) and carbonate associated sulfates (CAS) to determine past seawater sulfur concentrations which can help identify specific depositonal periods such as anoxic or oxic conditions. The use of sulfur isotope reconstruction is often paired with oxygen when a molecule contains both elements.

Other uses

Barite is used in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics, sound reduction in engine compartments, coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance, friction products for automobiles and trucks, radiation-shielding cement, glass ceramics, and medical applications (for example, a barium meal before a contrast CT scan). Barite is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing; filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising, and there are further premiums for whiteness and brightness and color. It is also used to produce other barium chemicals, notably barium carbonate which is used for the manufacture of LED glass for television and computer screens (historically in cathode ray tubes); and for dielectrics.

Historically, barite was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining, and as a white pigment for textiles, paper, and paint.

Although barite contains the toxic heavy metal barium, it is not toxic because barium sulfate is extremely insoluble in water.

It is also sometimes used as gemstone."

The license terms of this written work from Wikipedia may be found at

  Common Minerals

»  Alunite
»  Amphibole
»  Anorthoclase
»  Apatite
»  Azurite
»  Barite
»  Beryl
»  Biotite
»  Bauxite

»  Borax
»  Calcite
»  Carnotite
»  Chalcopyrite
»  Chromite
»  Chrysocolla
»  Cinnabar
»  Corundum
»  Cryolite

»  Cuprite
»  Diamond
»  Dioptase
»  Dolomite
»  Epidote
»  Euclase
»  Feldspar
»  Fluorite
»  Galena

»  Garnet
»  Graphite
»  Gypsum
»  Halite
»  Hematite
»  Hornblende
»  Hydroxylapatite
»  Jadeite
»  Labradorite

»  Leaverite
»  Lepidolite
»  Magnetite
»  Malachite
»  Marcasite
»  Mica
»  Microcline
»  Molybdenite
»  Muscovite

»  Natron
»  Oligoclase
»  Olivine
»  Oregonite
»  Orthoclase
»  Plagioclase
»  Pyrite
»  Quartz
»  Realgar

»  Scheelite
»  Selenite
»  Siderite
»  Simonellite
»  Sphalerite
»  Spinel
»  Stibnite
»  Talc
»  Tanzanite

»  Tellurite
»  Topaz
»  Tourmaline
»  Turquoise
»  Uraninite
»  Wulfenite
»  Zeolite
»  Zircon

  Common Rocks

Igneous :

»  Andesite
»  Basalt
»  Dacite
»  Diorite
»  Gabbro
»  Granite

»  Obsidian
»  Pegmatite
»  Porphyry
»  Pumice
»  Rhyolite
»  Scoria

Sedimentary :

»  Banded iron fm.
»  Breccia
»  Chalk
»  Claystone
»  Coal

»  Conglomerate
»  Coquina
»  Diatomite
»  Evaporite
»  Flint

»  Limestone
»  Marl
»  Mudstone
»  Oil shale
»  Oolite

»  Sandstone
»  Shale
»  Siltstone
»  Travertine
»  Wackestone

Metamorphic :

»  Anthracite
»  Amphibolite
»  Gneiss
»  Marble

»  Quartzite
»  Schist
»  Serpentine
»  Slate

  The Elements

Actinium  89
Aluminum  13
Americium  95
Antimony  51
Argon  18
Arsenic  33
Astatine  85
Barium  56
Berkelium  97
Beryllium  4
Bismuth  83
Bohrium  107
Boron  5
Bromine  35
Cadmium  48

Calcium  20
Californium  98
Carbon  6
Cerium  58
Cesium  55
Chlorine  17
Chromium  24
Cobalt  27
Copernicium  112
Copper  29
Curium  96
Darmstadtium  110
Dubnium  105
Dysprosium  66
Einsteinium  99

Erbium  68
Europium  63
Fermium  100
Flerovium  114
Fluorine  9
Francium  87
Gadolinium  64
Gallium  31
Germanium  32
Gold  79
Hafnium  72
Hassium  108
Helium  2
Holmium  67
Hydrogen  1

Indium  49
Iodine  53
Iridium  77
Iron  26
Krypton  36
Lanthanum  57
Lawrencium  103
Lead  82
Lithium  3
Livermorium  116
Lutetium  71
Magnesium  12
Manganese  25
Meitnerium  109
Mendelevium  101

Mercury  80
Molybdenum  42
Moscovium  115
Neodymium  60
Neon  10
Neptunium  93
Nickel  28
Nihonium  113
Niobium  41
Nitrogen  7
Nobelium  102
Oganesson  118
Osmium  76
Oxygen  8
Palladium  46

Phosphorus  15
Platinum  78
Plutonium  94
Polonium  84
Potassium  19
Praseodymium  59
Promethium  61
Protactinium  91
Radium  88
Radon  86
Rhenium  75
Rhodium  45
Roentgenium  111
Rubidium  37
Ruthenium  44

Rutherfordium  104
Samarium  62
Scandium  21
Seaborgium  106
Selenium  34
Silicon  14
Silver  47
Sodium  11
Strontium  38
Sulfur  16
Tantalum  73
Technetium  43
Tellurium  52
Tennessine  117
Terbium  65

Thallium  81
Thorium  90
Thulium  69
Tin  50
Titanium  22
Tungsten  74
Uranium  92
Vanadium  23
Xenon  54
Ytterbium  70
Yttrium  39
Zinc  30
Zirconium  40

There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. Many of these sets are formally recognized by the standards body IUPAC.

The following collective names are recommended by IUPAC:

Alkali metals – The metals of group 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metals – The metals of group 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Pnictogens – The elements of group 15: N, P, As, Sb, Bi. (Mc had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Chalcogens – The elements of group 16: O, S, Se, Te, Po. (Lv had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Halogens – The elements of group 17: F, Cl, Br, I, At. (Ts had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Noble gases – The elements of group 18: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. (Og had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Lanthanoids – Elements 57–71: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu,

Actinoids – Elements 89–103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr.

Rare-earth metalsSc Y, plus the lanthanoids

Transition elements – Elements in groups 3 to 11 or 3 to 12.

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