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    The mineral Alunite


















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The following was retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :  ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alunite ) on February 28, 2020.

"Alunite is a hydroxylated aluminium potassium sulfate mineral, formula KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6. It was first observed in the 15th century at Tolfa, near Rome, where it is mined for the manufacture of alum. First called aluminilite by J.C. Delamétherie in 1797, this name was contracted by François Beudant three decades later to alunite.

Alunite crystals morphologically are rhombohedra with interfacial angles of 90° 50', causing them to resemble cubes. Crystal symmetry is trigonal. Minute glistening crystals have also been found loose in cavities in altered rhyolite. Alunite varies in color from white to yellow gray. The hardness is 4 and the specific gravity is between 2.6 and 2.8. It is insoluble in water or weak acids, but soluble in sulfuric acid.

Sodium can substitute for potassium in the mineral, and when the sodium content is high, is called natroalunite.

Alunite is an analog of Jarosite, where aluminium replaces Fe3+. Alunite occurs as a secondary mineral on iron sulfate ores.

Alunite occurs as veins and replacement masses in trachyte, rhyolite, and similar potassium rich volcanic rocks. It is formed by the action of sulfuric acid bearing solutions on these rocks during the oxidation and leaching of metal sulfide deposits. Alunite also is found near volcanic fumaroles. The white, finely granular masses closely resemble finely granular limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, and magnesite in appearance. The more compact kinds from Hungary are so hard and tough that they have been used for millstones.

Historically extensive deposits were mined in Tuscany and Hungary, and at Bulahdelah, New South Wales, Australia. It is currently mined at Tolfa, Italy. In the United States it is found in the San Juan district of Colorado; Goldfield, Nevada; the ghost town of Alunite, Utah near Marysvale; and Red Mountain near Patagonia, Arizona. The Arizona occurrence lies appropriately above a canyon named Alum Gulch. Alunite is mined as an ore of both potassium and aluminium at Marysvale. Some of the ore deposits were located by airborne and satellite multispectral imaging.

An article in the May/June 2019 issue of Archaeology magazine states that in China, in Henan province, an assortment of ceramic objects and jars were found, dating back 2000 years. In one of the jars, a mixture of alunite and potassium nitrate was found. The mixture was then thought to be a "mixture of immortality" mentioned in ancient Chinese texts. Obviously, this does not appear to have succeeded."

The license terms of this written work from Wikipedia may be found at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/













  Common Minerals



»  Alunite
»  Amphibole
»  Anorthoclase
»  Apatite
»  Azurite
»  Barite
»  Beryl
»  Biotite
»  Bauxite


»  Borax
»  Calcite
»  Carnotite
»  Chalcopyrite
»  Chromite
»  Chrysocolla
»  Cinnabar
»  Corundum
»  Cryolite


»  Cuprite
»  Diamond
»  Dioptase
»  Dolomite
»  Epidote
»  Euclase
»  Feldspar
»  Fluorite
»  Galena


»  Garnet
»  Graphite
»  Gypsum
»  Halite
»  Hematite
»  Hornblende
»  Hydroxylapatite
»  Jadeite
»  Labradorite


»  Leaverite
»  Lepidolite
»  Magnetite
»  Malachite
»  Marcasite
»  Mica
»  Microcline
»  Molybdenite
»  Muscovite


»  Natron
»  Oligoclase
»  Olivine
»  Oregonite
»  Orthoclase
»  Plagioclase
»  Pyrite
»  Quartz
»  Realgar


»  Scheelite
»  Selenite
»  Siderite
»  Simonellite
»  Sphalerite
»  Spinel
»  Stibnite
»  Talc
»  Tanzanite


»  Tellurite
»  Topaz
»  Tourmaline
»  Turquoise
»  Uraninite
»  Wulfenite
»  Zeolite
»  Zircon










  Common Rocks



Igneous :

»  Andesite
»  Basalt
»  Dacite
»  Diorite
»  Gabbro
»  Granite

»  Obsidian
»  Pegmatite
»  Porphyry
»  Pumice
»  Rhyolite
»  Scoria

Sedimentary :

»  Banded iron fm.
»  Breccia
»  Chalk
»  Claystone
»  Coal

»  Conglomerate
»  Coquina
»  Diatomite
»  Evaporite
»  Flint

»  Limestone
»  Marl
»  Mudstone
»  Oil shale
»  Oolite

»  Sandstone
»  Shale
»  Siltstone
»  Travertine
»  Wackestone

Metamorphic :

»  Anthracite
»  Amphibolite
»  Gneiss
»  Marble

»  Quartzite
»  Schist
»  Serpentine
»  Slate










  The Elements



Actinium  89
Aluminum  13
Americium  95
Antimony  51
Argon  18
Arsenic  33
Astatine  85
Barium  56
Berkelium  97
Beryllium  4
Bismuth  83
Bohrium  107
Boron  5
Bromine  35
Cadmium  48


Calcium  20
Californium  98
Carbon  6
Cerium  58
Cesium  55
Chlorine  17
Chromium  24
Cobalt  27
Copernicium  112
Copper  29
Curium  96
Darmstadtium  110
Dubnium  105
Dysprosium  66
Einsteinium  99


Erbium  68
Europium  63
Fermium  100
Flerovium  114
Fluorine  9
Francium  87
Gadolinium  64
Gallium  31
Germanium  32
Gold  79
Hafnium  72
Hassium  108
Helium  2
Holmium  67
Hydrogen  1


Indium  49
Iodine  53
Iridium  77
Iron  26
Krypton  36
Lanthanum  57
Lawrencium  103
Lead  82
Lithium  3
Livermorium  116
Lutetium  71
Magnesium  12
Manganese  25
Meitnerium  109
Mendelevium  101


Mercury  80
Molybdenum  42
Moscovium  115
Neodymium  60
Neon  10
Neptunium  93
Nickel  28
Nihonium  113
Niobium  41
Nitrogen  7
Nobelium  102
Oganesson  118
Osmium  76
Oxygen  8
Palladium  46


Phosphorus  15
Platinum  78
Plutonium  94
Polonium  84
Potassium  19
Praseodymium  59
Promethium  61
Protactinium  91
Radium  88
Radon  86
Rhenium  75
Rhodium  45
Roentgenium  111
Rubidium  37
Ruthenium  44


Rutherfordium  104
Samarium  62
Scandium  21
Seaborgium  106
Selenium  34
Silicon  14
Silver  47
Sodium  11
Strontium  38
Sulfur  16
Tantalum  73
Technetium  43
Tellurium  52
Tennessine  117
Terbium  65


Thallium  81
Thorium  90
Thulium  69
Tin  50
Titanium  22
Tungsten  74
Uranium  92
Vanadium  23
Xenon  54
Ytterbium  70
Yttrium  39
Zinc  30
Zirconium  40























There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. Many of these sets are formally recognized by the standards body IUPAC.

The following collective names are recommended by IUPAC:

Alkali metals – The metals of group 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metals – The metals of group 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Pnictogens – The elements of group 15: N, P, As, Sb, Bi. (Mc had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Chalcogens – The elements of group 16: O, S, Se, Te, Po. (Lv had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Halogens – The elements of group 17: F, Cl, Br, I, At. (Ts had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Noble gases – The elements of group 18: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. (Og had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Lanthanoids – Elements 57–71: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu,

Actinoids – Elements 89–103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr.

Rare-earth metalsSc Y, plus the lanthanoids

Transition elements – Elements in groups 3 to 11 or 3 to 12.






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