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Elements

Actinium - 89

Aluminum - 13

Americium - 95

Antimony - 51

Argon - 18

Arsenic - 33

Astatine - 85

Barium - 56

Berkelium - 97

Beryllium - 4

Bismuth - 83

Bohrium - 107

Boron - 5

Bromine - 35

Cadmium - 48

Calcium - 20

Californium - 98

Carbon - 6

Cerium - 58

Cesium - 55

Chlorine - 17

Chromium - 24

Cobalt - 27

Copernicium - 112

Copper - 29

Curium - 96

Darmstadtium - 110

Dubnium - 105

Dysprosium - 66

Einsteinium - 99

Erbium - 68

Europium - 63

Fermium - 100

Flerovium - 114

Fluorine - 9

Francium - 87

Gadolinium - 64

Gallium - 31

Germanium - 32

Gold - 79

Hafnium - 72

Hassium - 108

Helium - 2

Holmium - 67

Hydrogen - 1

Indium - 49

Iodine - 53

Iridium - 77

Iron - 26

Krypton - 36

Lanthanum - 57

Lawrencium - 103

Lead - 82

Lithium - 3

Livermorium - 116

Lutetium - 71

Magnesium - 12

Manganese - 25

Meitnerium - 109

Mendelevium - 101

Mercury - 80

Molybdenum - 42

Moscovium - 115

Neodymium - 60

Neon - 10

Neptunium - 93

Nickel - 28

Nihonium - 113

Niobium - 41

Nitrogen - 7

Nobelium - 102

Oganesson - 118

Osmium - 76

Oxygen - 8

Palladium - 46

Phosphorus - 15

Platinum - 78

Plutonium - 94

Polonium - 84

Potassium - 19

Praseodymium - 59

Promethium - 61

Protactinium - 91

Radium - 88

Radon - 86

Rhenium - 75

Rhodium - 45

Roentgenium - 111

Rubidium - 37

Ruthenium - 44

Rutherfordium - 104

Samarium - 62

Scandium - 21

Seaborgium - 106

Selenium - 34

Silicon - 14

Silver - 47

Sodium - 11

Strontium - 38

Sulfur - 16

Tantalum - 73

Technetium - 43

Tellurium - 52

Tennessine - 117

Terbium - 65

Thallium - 81

Thorium - 90

Thulium - 69

Tin - 50

Titanium - 22

Tungsten - 74

Uranium - 92

Vanadium - 23

Xenon - 54

Ytterbium - 70

Yttrium - 39

Zinc - 30

Zirconium - 40





    Eons of Earth :


The Earth is approximately 4.543 billion years old.

The Universe is approximately 13.8 billion years old.

The Universe was approximately 9.257 billion years old
when our planet coalesced from a primordial cloud
of gas and dust.






The  C o l o r a d o   P l a t e a u         »    Ctr Bio-Cult. Diversity   »   Geology
















The following was retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia : ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology ) on October 27, 2019.

Geology

"Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse")) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates.

Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering."

The license terms of this written work from Wikipedia may be found at
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/










Science News



»  archeology.org

»  claymath.org

»  climatecentral.org

»  climate.nasa.gov

»  earthsky.org

»  Esciencenews




»  geology.com

»  geosociety.org

»  Heavens Above

»  livescience.com

»  MIT News

»  NASA APOD




»  NASA Image OTD

»  Nature Magazine

»  pbs.org/wgbh/nova

»  physics.aps.org

»  physnews.com

»  plus.maths.org




»  Sciencemag

»  Smithsonian

»  StuSoc4Science

»  SV Paleontology

»  symmetrymagazine

»  whoi.edu











Science Articles and Publications



»  Icarus

»  Science News

»  AAAS Science Magazine

»  The Scientist

»  Scientific Journals

»  AAAS Science Journals

»  Scientific American

»  Public Library of Science

»  Discover Magazine

»  Scientific Reports




»  Elsevier Open access journals

»  Euroscientist

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»  How Stuff Works

»  NASA

»  Live Science

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»  Science Direct

»  Space

»  Popular Science




»  Smithsonian

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»  BBC Science and environment

»  Chemistry World

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»  KIDS - Amazing Space

»  KIDS - Ask a Biologist

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»  KIDS - Butterflies And Moths

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»  KIDS - Climate Kids (NASA)

»  KIDS - Desert USA











The Greek Alphabet


Α α

Β β

Γ γ

Δ δ

Ε ε


  alpha

  beta

  gamma

  delta

  epsilon



Ζ ζ

Η η

Θ θ

Ι ι

Κ κ


  zeta

  eta

  theta

  iota

  kappa



Λ λ

Μ μ

Ν

Ξ ξ

Ο ο


  lambda

  mu

  nu

  xi

  omicron



Π π

Ρ ρ

Σ σ/ς

Τ τ

Υ υ


  pi

  rho

  sigma

  tau

  upsilon



Φ φ

Χ χ

Ψ ψ

Ω ω


  phi

  chi

  psi

  omega











Minerals



»  Alunite

»  Amphibole

»  Anorthoclase

»  Apatite

»  Azurite

»  Barite

»  Beryl

»  Biotite

»  Bauxite

»  Borax

»  Calcite



»  Carnotite

»  Chalcopyrite

»  Chromite

»  Chrysocolla

»  Cinnabar

»  Corundum

»  Cryolite

»  Cuprite

»  Diamond

»  Dioptase



»  Dolomite

»  Epidote

»  Euclase

»  Feldspar

»  Fluorite

»  Galena

»  Garnet

»  Graphite

»  Gypsum

»  Halite



»  Hematite

»  Hornblende

»  Hydroxylapatite

»  Jadeite

»  Labradorite

»  Leaverite

»  Lepidolite

»  Magnetite

»  Malachite

»  Marcasite



»  Mica

»  Microcline

»  Molybdenite

»  Muscovite

»  Natron

»  Oligoclase

»  Olivine

»  Oregonite

»  Orthoclase

»  Plagioclase



»  Pyrite

»  Quartz

»  Realgar

»  Scheelite

»  Selenite

»  Siderite

»  Simonellite

»  Sphalerite

»  Spinel

»  Stibnite



»  Talc

»  Tanzanite

»  Tellurite

»  Topaz

»  Tourmaline

»  Turquoise

»  Uraninite

»  Wulfenite

»  Zeolite

»  Zircon










List of Common Rocks




Igneous :

»  Andesite

»  Basalt

»  Dacite

»  Diorite

»  Gabbro

»  Granite



»  Obsidian

»  Pegmatite

»  Porphyry

»  Pumice

»  Rhyolite

»  Scoria



Sedimentary :

»  Banded iron fm.

»  Breccia

»  Chalk

»  Claystone

»  Coal

»  Conglomerate

»  Coquina



»  Diatomite

»  Evaporite

»  Flint

»  Limestone

»  Marl

»  Mudstone

»  Oil shale



»  Oolite

»  Sandstone

»  Shale

»  Siltstone

»  Travertine

»  Wackestone



Metamorphic :

»  Anthracite

»  Amphibolite

»  Gneiss

»  Marble




»  Quartzite

»  Schist

»  Serpentine

»  Slate





















      The Mission of the Center for Bio-Cultural Diversity (CBD) is to cultivate Citizen Science activities in a professional setting.



      The Mission of the CBD Astrolab is to offer the use of telescope time to the Museum of Northern Arizona members, volunteers and employees along with their families.

      The Mission of the CBD Photolab is to provide the opportunity for those with different skills in photography to learn more and share their knowledge.

      The Mission of the CBD Audiolab is to provide the opportunity for the study of sound in all of its manifestations.

      The Mission of the CBD Geolab is to provide the opportunity for the study of rocks and minerals as well as the geophysics of the earth as a whole.









Phanerozoic Geological Timeline
Geological Society of America - 2009





























There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. Many of these sets are formally recognized by the standards body IUPAC.

The following collective names are recommended by IUPAC:

Alkali metals – The metals of group 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metals – The metals of group 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Pnictogens – The elements of group 15: N, P, As, Sb, Bi. (Mc had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Chalcogens – The elements of group 16: O, S, Se, Te, Po. (Lv had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Halogens – The elements of group 17: F, Cl, Br, I, At. (Ts had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Noble gases – The elements of group 18: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. (Og had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Lanthanoids – Elements 57–71: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu.

Actinoids – Elements 89–103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr.

Rare-earth metals – Sc, Y, plus the lanthanoids.

Transition elements – Elements in groups 3 to 11 or 3 to 12.











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