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    The element Lithium


















Definitions     A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  














The following was retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :  ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium ) on February 29, 2020.

"Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and must be stored in mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common. For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.

Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three quarters of lithium production.

Lithium is present in biological systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain. Lithium salts have proven to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder in humans."

The license terms of this written work from Wikipedia may be found at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/













  Common Minerals



»  Alunite
»  Amphibole
»  Anorthoclase
»  Apatite
»  Azurite
»  Barite
»  Beryl
»  Biotite
»  Bauxite


»  Borax
»  Calcite
»  Carnotite
»  Chalcopyrite
»  Chromite
»  Chrysocolla
»  Cinnabar
»  Corundum
»  Cryolite


»  Cuprite
»  Diamond
»  Dioptase
»  Dolomite
»  Epidote
»  Euclase
»  Feldspar
»  Fluorite
»  Galena


»  Garnet
»  Graphite
»  Gypsum
»  Halite
»  Hematite
»  Hornblende
»  Hydroxylapatite
»  Jadeite
»  Labradorite


»  Leaverite
»  Lepidolite
»  Magnetite
»  Malachite
»  Marcasite
»  Mica
»  Microcline
»  Molybdenite
»  Muscovite


»  Natron
»  Oligoclase
»  Olivine
»  Oregonite
»  Orthoclase
»  Plagioclase
»  Pyrite
»  Quartz
»  Realgar


»  Scheelite
»  Selenite
»  Siderite
»  Simonellite
»  Sphalerite
»  Spinel
»  Stibnite
»  Talc
»  Tanzanite


»  Tellurite
»  Topaz
»  Tourmaline
»  Turquoise
»  Uraninite
»  Wulfenite
»  Zeolite
»  Zircon










  Common Rocks



Igneous :

»  Andesite
»  Basalt
»  Dacite
»  Diorite
»  Gabbro
»  Granite

»  Obsidian
»  Pegmatite
»  Porphyry
»  Pumice
»  Rhyolite
»  Scoria

Sedimentary :

»  Banded iron fm.
»  Breccia
»  Chalk
»  Claystone
»  Coal

»  Conglomerate
»  Coquina
»  Diatomite
»  Evaporite
»  Flint

»  Limestone
»  Marl
»  Mudstone
»  Oil shale
»  Oolite

»  Sandstone
»  Shale
»  Siltstone
»  Travertine
»  Wackestone

Metamorphic :

»  Anthracite
»  Amphibolite
»  Gneiss
»  Marble

»  Quartzite
»  Schist
»  Serpentine
»  Slate










  The Elements



Actinium  89
Aluminum  13
Americium  95
Antimony  51
Argon  18
Arsenic  33
Astatine  85
Barium  56
Berkelium  97
Beryllium  4
Bismuth  83
Bohrium  107
Boron  5
Bromine  35
Cadmium  48


Calcium  20
Californium  98
Carbon  6
Cerium  58
Cesium  55
Chlorine  17
Chromium  24
Cobalt  27
Copernicium  112
Copper  29
Curium  96
Darmstadtium  110
Dubnium  105
Dysprosium  66
Einsteinium  99


Erbium  68
Europium  63
Fermium  100
Flerovium  114
Fluorine  9
Francium  87
Gadolinium  64
Gallium  31
Germanium  32
Gold  79
Hafnium  72
Hassium  108
Helium  2
Holmium  67
Hydrogen  1


Indium  49
Iodine  53
Iridium  77
Iron  26
Krypton  36
Lanthanum  57
Lawrencium  103
Lead  82
Lithium  3
Livermorium  116
Lutetium  71
Magnesium  12
Manganese  25
Meitnerium  109
Mendelevium  101


Mercury  80
Molybdenum  42
Moscovium  115
Neodymium  60
Neon  10
Neptunium  93
Nickel  28
Nihonium  113
Niobium  41
Nitrogen  7
Nobelium  102
Oganesson  118
Osmium  76
Oxygen  8
Palladium  46


Phosphorus  15
Platinum  78
Plutonium  94
Polonium  84
Potassium  19
Praseodymium  59
Promethium  61
Protactinium  91
Radium  88
Radon  86
Rhenium  75
Rhodium  45
Roentgenium  111
Rubidium  37
Ruthenium  44


Rutherfordium  104
Samarium  62
Scandium  21
Seaborgium  106
Selenium  34
Silicon  14
Silver  47
Sodium  11
Strontium  38
Sulfur  16
Tantalum  73
Technetium  43
Tellurium  52
Tennessine  117
Terbium  65


Thallium  81
Thorium  90
Thulium  69
Tin  50
Titanium  22
Tungsten  74
Uranium  92
Vanadium  23
Xenon  54
Ytterbium  70
Yttrium  39
Zinc  30
Zirconium  40























There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. Many of these sets are formally recognized by the standards body IUPAC.

The following collective names are recommended by IUPAC:

Alkali metals – The metals of group 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metals – The metals of group 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Pnictogens – The elements of group 15: N, P, As, Sb, Bi. (Mc had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Chalcogens – The elements of group 16: O, S, Se, Te, Po. (Lv had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Halogens – The elements of group 17: F, Cl, Br, I, At. (Ts had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Noble gases – The elements of group 18: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. (Og had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Lanthanoids – Elements 57–71: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu,

Actinoids – Elements 89–103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr.

Rare-earth metalsSc Y, plus the lanthanoids

Transition elements – Elements in groups 3 to 11 or 3 to 12.






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