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Elements

Actinium - 89

Aluminum - 13

Americium - 95

Antimony - 51

Argon - 18

Arsenic - 33

Astatine - 85

Barium - 56

Berkelium - 97

Beryllium - 4

Bismuth - 83

Bohrium - 107

Boron - 5

Bromine - 35

Cadmium - 48

Calcium - 20

Californium - 98

Carbon - 6

Cerium - 58

Cesium - 55

Chlorine - 17

Chromium - 24

Cobalt - 27

Copernicium - 112

Copper - 29

Curium - 96

Darmstadtium - 110

Dubnium - 105

Dysprosium - 66

Einsteinium - 99

Erbium - 68

Europium - 63

Fermium - 100

Flerovium - 114

Fluorine - 9

Francium - 87

Gadolinium - 64

Gallium - 31

Germanium - 32

Gold - 79

Hafnium - 72

Hassium - 108

Helium - 2

Holmium - 67

Hydrogen - 1

Indium - 49

Iodine - 53

Iridium - 77

Iron - 26

Krypton - 36

Lanthanum - 57

Lawrencium - 103

Lead - 82

Lithium - 3

Livermorium - 116

Lutetium - 71

Magnesium - 12

Manganese - 25

Meitnerium - 109

Mendelevium - 101

Mercury - 80

Molybdenum - 42

Moscovium - 115

Neodymium - 60

Neon - 10

Neptunium - 93

Nickel - 28

Nihonium - 113

Niobium - 41

Nitrogen - 7

Nobelium - 102

Oganesson - 118

Osmium - 76

Oxygen - 8

Palladium - 46

Phosphorus - 15

Platinum - 78

Plutonium - 94

Polonium - 84

Potassium - 19

Praseodymium - 59

Promethium - 61

Protactinium - 91

Radium - 88

Radon - 86

Rhenium - 75

Rhodium - 45

Roentgenium - 111

Rubidium - 37

Ruthenium - 44

Rutherfordium - 104

Samarium - 62

Scandium - 21

Seaborgium - 106

Selenium - 34

Silicon - 14

Silver - 47

Sodium - 11

Strontium - 38

Sulfur - 16

Tantalum - 73

Technetium - 43

Tellurium - 52

Tennessine - 117

Terbium - 65

Thallium - 81

Thorium - 90

Thulium - 69

Tin - 50

Titanium - 22

Tungsten - 74

Uranium - 92

Vanadium - 23

Xenon - 54

Ytterbium - 70

Yttrium - 39

Zinc - 30

Zirconium - 40





    Eons of Earth :


The Earth is approximately 4.543 billion years old.

The Universe is approximately 13.8 billion years old.

The Universe was approximately 9.257 billion years old
when our planet coalesced from a primordial cloud
of gas and dust.






The  C o l o r a d o   P l a t e a u         »    Ctr Bio-Cult. Diversity   »   Archaeology
















The following was retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :
( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology ) on October 28, 2019.

Archaeology

"Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines.

Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, which is the study of fossil remains. It is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.

The discipline involves surveying, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, literary history, linguistics, semiology, sociology, textual criticism, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology, and paleobotany.

Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, and has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, and numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, today, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, and opposition to the excavation of human remains."

The license terms of this written work from Wikipedia may be found at
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/










Science News



»  archeology.org

»  claymath.org

»  climatecentral.org

»  climate.nasa.gov

»  earthsky.org

»  Esciencenews




»  geology.com

»  geosociety.org

»  Heavens Above

»  livescience.com

»  MIT News

»  NASA APOD




»  NASA Image OTD

»  Nature Magazine

»  pbs.org/wgbh/nova

»  physics.aps.org

»  physnews.com

»  plus.maths.org




»  Sciencemag

»  Smithsonian

»  StuSoc4Science

»  SV Paleontology

»  symmetrymagazine

»  whoi.edu











Science Articles and Publications



»  Icarus

»  Science News

»  AAAS Science Magazine

»  The Scientist

»  Scientific Journals

»  AAAS Science Journals

»  Scientific American

»  Public Library of Science

»  Discover Magazine

»  Scientific Reports




»  Elsevier Open access journals

»  Euroscientist

»  Nature

»  How Stuff Works

»  NASA

»  Live Science

»  Science Daily

»  Science Direct

»  Space

»  Popular Science




»  Smithsonian

»  Treehugger

»  New Scientist

»  RedOrbit

»  BBC Science and environment

»  Chemistry World

»  Atlas Obscura

»  KIDS - Amazing Space

»  KIDS - Ask a Biologist

»  KIDS - Bugguide




»  KIDS - Butterflies And Moths

»  KIDS - Chem4Kids

»  KIDS - Climate Kids (NASA)

»  KIDS - Desert USA











The Greek Alphabet


Α α

Β β

Γ γ

Δ δ

Ε ε


  alpha

  beta

  gamma

  delta

  epsilon



Ζ ζ

Η η

Θ θ

Ι ι

Κ κ


  zeta

  eta

  theta

  iota

  kappa



Λ λ

Μ μ

Ν

Ξ ξ

Ο ο


  lambda

  mu

  nu

  xi

  omicron



Π π

Ρ ρ

Σ σ/ς

Τ τ

Υ υ


  pi

  rho

  sigma

  tau

  upsilon



Φ φ

Χ χ

Ψ ψ

Ω ω


  phi

  chi

  psi

  omega











Minerals



»  Alunite

»  Amphibole

»  Anorthoclase

»  Apatite

»  Azurite

»  Barite

»  Beryl

»  Biotite

»  Bauxite

»  Borax

»  Calcite



»  Carnotite

»  Chalcopyrite

»  Chromite

»  Chrysocolla

»  Cinnabar

»  Corundum

»  Cryolite

»  Cuprite

»  Diamond

»  Dioptase



»  Dolomite

»  Epidote

»  Euclase

»  Feldspar

»  Fluorite

»  Galena

»  Garnet

»  Graphite

»  Gypsum

»  Halite



»  Hematite

»  Hornblende

»  Hydroxylapatite

»  Jadeite

»  Labradorite

»  Leaverite

»  Lepidolite

»  Magnetite

»  Malachite

»  Marcasite



»  Mica

»  Microcline

»  Molybdenite

»  Muscovite

»  Natron

»  Oligoclase

»  Olivine

»  Oregonite

»  Orthoclase

»  Plagioclase



»  Pyrite

»  Quartz

»  Realgar

»  Scheelite

»  Selenite

»  Siderite

»  Simonellite

»  Sphalerite

»  Spinel

»  Stibnite



»  Talc

»  Tanzanite

»  Tellurite

»  Topaz

»  Tourmaline

»  Turquoise

»  Uraninite

»  Wulfenite

»  Zeolite

»  Zircon










List of Common Rocks




Igneous :

»  Andesite

»  Basalt

»  Dacite

»  Diorite

»  Gabbro

»  Granite



»  Obsidian

»  Pegmatite

»  Porphyry

»  Pumice

»  Rhyolite

»  Scoria



Sedimentary :

»  Banded iron fm.

»  Breccia

»  Chalk

»  Claystone

»  Coal

»  Conglomerate

»  Coquina



»  Diatomite

»  Evaporite

»  Flint

»  Limestone

»  Marl

»  Mudstone

»  Oil shale



»  Oolite

»  Sandstone

»  Shale

»  Siltstone

»  Travertine

»  Wackestone



Metamorphic :

»  Anthracite

»  Amphibolite

»  Gneiss

»  Marble




»  Quartzite

»  Schist

»  Serpentine

»  Slate





















      The Mission of the Center for Bio-Cultural Diversity (CBD) is to cultivate Citizen Science activities in a professional setting.



      The Mission of the CBD Astrolab is to offer the use of telescope time to the Museum of Northern Arizona members, volunteers and employees along with their families.

      The Mission of the CBD Photolab is to provide the opportunity for those with different skills in photography to learn more and share their knowledge.

      The Mission of the CBD Audiolab is to provide the opportunity for the study of sound in all of its manifestations.

      The Mission of the CBD Geolab is to provide the opportunity for the study of rocks and minerals as well as the geophysics of the earth as a whole.









Phanerozoic Geological Timeline
Geological Society of America - 2009





























There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. Many of these sets are formally recognized by the standards body IUPAC.

The following collective names are recommended by IUPAC:

Alkali metals – The metals of group 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metals – The metals of group 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Pnictogens – The elements of group 15: N, P, As, Sb, Bi. (Mc had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Chalcogens – The elements of group 16: O, S, Se, Te, Po. (Lv had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Halogens – The elements of group 17: F, Cl, Br, I, At. (Ts had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Noble gases – The elements of group 18: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. (Og had not yet been named when the 2005 IUPAC Red Book was published, and its chemical properties are not yet experimentally known.)

Lanthanoids – Elements 57–71: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu.

Actinoids – Elements 89–103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr.

Rare-earth metals – Sc, Y, plus the lanthanoids.

Transition elements – Elements in groups 3 to 11 or 3 to 12.











The Mission of the Center for Biocultural Diversity is to cultivate Citizen Science in a professional setting.






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